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Richard Gunn may be contacted at: richardmgunn@googlemail.com

'Having given up autonomy, reason has become an instrument. In the formalistic aspect of subjective reason, stressed by positivism, its unrelatedness to objective content is emphasised; in its instrumental aspect, stressed by pragmatism, its surrender to heteronomous contents is emphasised. Reason has become completely harnessed to the social process. Its operational value, its role in the domination of men and nature, has been made the sole criterion.'

- Max Horkheimer (1947)

Richard Gunn's interests include issues in social and political theory and the history of thought. His website makes available a range of his older and more recent papers, published and unpublished. All papers on the website may be circulated, published and translated freely - the only stipulation being that nothing in them is changed and Richard Gunn is acknowledged as author.

Papers on each page are in chronological order; fresh items will be added to the website from time to time.

Papers which have been typed up for the website, and which have been previously published, incorporate minor (mainly verbal) corrections. In all cases, the paper's structure and main line of argument is unchanged.

The names given to the website's pages - 'Hegel', 'Marx & Marxism' and 'Scottish Thought' - indicate broad areas of interest. These areas are not to be regarded as having boundaries that are hard-edged or fixed.

Richard Gunn lectured on politics at the University of Edinburgh from 1975 until his retirement in 2011, and was a member of the editorial collective of Common Sense (Common Sense journal) between 1987 and 1997. His website has a political purpose, namely, the strengthening of a life of the mind which appeals not to market-based instrumental order and what Schiller termed 'bread scholarship' but to a sensus communis where mutual recognition prevails.